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砂石過濾器在微灌工程中的應用

文字:[大][中][小] 手機頁面二維碼 2017/9/18     瀏覽次數:    

  在旱災之年,水澆地充分顯示了灌溉增產效果。只有大力發展灌溉事業才能保證農業生產持續穩定地發展。幾年來,雙城市從推進節水微灌來改善農業生產條件和生態環境入手、發展“兩高一優”農業和節水農業、提高土地利用率和復種指數,并通過調整農業種植結構,提高農業的整體素質和效益,增加農民收入。增強集體經濟實力、增加財政收入、為農業經濟的新飛躍奠定基礎,促進傳統農業向現代農業的轉變,加快農業現代化建設步伐。砂石過濾器應用于微灌工程中,有利于提高微灌工程效率,確保農業的穩產、增產。


  1、過濾器的結構與工作原理


  砂石過濾器是利用砂石作為介質進行過濾的裝置。主要由罐體進水口、出水口、排污口、砂床等部分組成。輔助部件有進水調壓閥、排污閥、沖洗閥和壓力表等,見圖1 。根據微灌首部樞紐設計流量要求,還可多罐并聯組合使用,罐體為鋼質圓柱形。砂床的級配粒徑為1.5~4.0 mm ,由不同粒徑多種砂礫分層鋪設而成,上層粒徑小、底層粒徑大。其過濾原理是含有泥砂等雜質的水進入罐體后進入砂床,過濾過程經過過濾介質間曲折的孔隙時完成,泥砂被截留在砂床過濾器單元內,過濾水經砂床過濾器單元進入二級篩網式過濾器。工作過程中當壓差值超過允許最大壓降時,就應進行人工清理或反沖洗。


  2、砂石過濾器的性能


  砂石過濾器主要用于水庫、塘壩、明渠、河流等水源中含有機物及泥砂的水質過濾,特別適用于水藻、漂浮物等雜物的處理。根據選用灌水器類型,一般需要與篩網式過濾器或疊片式過濾器配套串聯使用。



  3、微灌砂石過濾器的優點


  (1) 用于旱田作物微灌,主要方法為:水車砂石過濾罐的自壓連接低壓軟管,軟管上每隔30 cm 1 個微灌孔,水車在移動中進行微灌。該法成本低,每套造價不足4.2 萬元。使用方便、操作簡單、比溝畦灌省水2P3 ,不必修渠和筑畦埂,既提高土地利用率,又省工省時,丘陵、崗地均適用。如投資150萬元,購28 套微灌設備,微灌面積可達280 hm2 。


  (2) 用于蔬菜微灌可使棚室溫度提高1 ℃~3 ℃,減少病蟲害發生,提高了蔬菜產量和質量,是目前最佳的節水高效灌溉方式,如加大投入力度,很有發展前途。

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